Interoperable storage encryption improves OS/application independent standardized cryptography and key management by embedding these technologies in the controllers of self-encrypting drives (SEDs). SEDs simplify secure large-scale drive imaging, migration and end-of-life sanitation. Seagate introduced proprietary SEDs in the mid-2000s using DriveTrust Technology. In 2009, the Trusted Computing Group (TCG) released open specifications for drives, arrays and storage interfaces. All major mass storage manufacturers support the TCG model.