Gartner defines sales performance management (SPM) as a suite of operational and analytical functions that automate and unite back-office operational sales processes. SPM is implemented to improve operational efficiency and effectiveness. Capabilities include sales incentive compensation management, objectives management, quota management and planning, territory management and planning, advanced analytics and gamification. Gartner defines incentive compensation management (ICM), which includes standard reporting and analytics, as the principal of three core capabilities for SPM — which incorporates territory management and quota management. These core capabilities link to the following “near-core” capabilities: quota planning, territory planning, advanced analytics, gamification and objectives management.