Virtual private networks (VPNs) are products and services used to achieve security and confidentiality for data in motion by means of encryption and access controls. Solutions may be implemented in software on end-user devices, servers and appliances. They may be purpose-built as dedicated systems, and/or built-in virtual constructs in cloud infrastructure. Security can be applied to communications that originate within devices and servers, and at various boundaries, including gateways and firewalls (FWs). In the case of virtual environments and multitenant architectures, VPN communications may occur within a server hosting the equivalent of several sites and tenants.