Gartner Research

Decision Point for B2E User Authentication

Published: 24 September 2019

ID: G00384897

Analyst(s): Paul Rabinovich


User authentication methods must be risk-appropriate for the resources that users access. This Decision Point helps security and risk management technical professionals select the most suitable form of authentication for employees and contractors based on risk, user experience and technology.

Table Of Contents

Decision Point Question

Decision Overview

  • Trust Levels

Decision Tool

  • Landline Phone
  • Hardware Root of Trust
  • Managed Device or Application
  • Mobile Connectivity
  • Feature Phone
  • Passwordless Initiative
  • PKI-Enabled Access
  • Smartphone
  • FIDO Support
  • Windows 10 Logon

Principles, Requirements and Constraints

  • Principles
  • Requirements and Constraints
    • Requirements
    • Constraints


  • Password
  • Mobile Push
  • Mobile OTP
  • Hardware OTP
  • FIDO Security Key
  • Voice Callback or Voice OTP
  • Desktop OTP
  • Smart Card
  • Software Certificate
  • Integral PKI Token
  • Windows Hello for Business
  • Other Authentication Methods: Biometric Authentication
    • Accountability and Biometric Authentication
  • Other Authentication Methods: Email OTP

Future Developments

  • Passwordless Authentication
  • FIDO
  • Windows Hello for Business
  • Adaptive Access and CARTA

Gartner Recommended Reading

©2021 Gartner, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Gartner is a registered trademark of Gartner, Inc. and its affiliates. This publication may not be reproduced or distributed in any form without Gartner’s prior written permission. It consists of the opinions of Gartner’s research organization, which should not be construed as statements of fact. While the information contained in this publication has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, Gartner disclaims all warranties as to the accuracy, completeness or adequacy of such information. Although Gartner research may address legal and financial issues, Gartner does not provide legal or investment advice and its research should not be construed or used as such. Your access and use of this publication are governed by Gartner’s Usage Policy. Gartner prides itself on its reputation for independence and objectivity. Its research is produced independently by its research organization without input or influence from any third party. For further information, see Guiding Principles on Independence and Objectivity.

Already have a Gartner Account?

Become a client

Learn how to access this content as a Gartner client.